Search This Blog

Nursing Diagnosis for Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, a bacterial infection, most commonly affects the lungs. Tuberculosis can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. Often Called TB for short, tuberculosis is the most common major infectious disease today. With that title the virus is infecting two billion people which is approximately one-third of the world's population. Nine million new cases of active disease annually, resulting in two million deaths. Most of these cases and deaths are in developing countries.

The disease tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any part of the body but usually infects the lungs. Tuberculosis is spread through airborne droplets occurring when an infected individual sneezes, talks, or coughs. However, prolonged exposure to the infected individual must occur before you may become infected. The body may harbor the bacteria while the immune system prevents sickness. For this reason, there are two forms of TB: latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis.

In many patients the infection of Tuberculosis waxes and wanes. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics kills bacteria and allows healing to take place. Areas where Tuberculosis has affected will eventually be replaced by scar tissue. A complete medical evaluation for Tuberculosis includes a medical history, a physical examination, a tuberculin skin test, a serological test, a chest X-ray, and microbiologic smears and cultures. This is quite an extensive procedure as you can see, but if you look at the numbers above it is a necessary process.

Active tuberculosis simply means that the tuberculosis bacteria are growing within the body causing an active infection. Signs and symptoms of active tuberculosis include fatigue, slight fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, unintended weight loss, a cough that lasts three or more weeks producing discolored or bloody sputum, and pain with coughing or breathing. Active tuberculosis is highly contagious.

Read More :

Nursing Diagnosis for Tuberculosis
READ MORE - Nursing Diagnosis for Tuberculosis

Key Terms of Nursing Diagnosis

Key Terms of Nursing Diagnosis

Key Terms of Nursing Diagnosis

NANDA, North American Nursing Diagnosis Association—Formed in 1973, this group is responsible for developing a classification system of nursing diagnoses.Expected outcome—A measurable individual, family, or community state, behavior, or perception that is measured along a continuum and is responsive to nursing interventions.

Medical diagnosis—A medical determination of disease or syndrome performed by a physician. The focus is on the disease process and the physical, genetic, or environmental cause of that process.

NIC, Nursing Interventions ClassificationDeveloped by the Iowa Intervention Project, this is a collection of nursing interventions linked to the NANDA diagnoses. The 2000 publication includes approximately 500 interventions.

NOC, Nursing Outcomes Classification— Developed by the Iowa Outcome Project, this is a comprehensive, standardized classification of patient outcomes developed to evaluate the effects of nursing interventions. The outcomes may be linked to the NANDA diagnoses and other diagnoses systems. The 2000 publication includes 260 outcomes.

Nursing assessment—The way in which a nurse gathers and evaluates data about a client (individual, family, or community). The assessment includes a physical examination, interviewing, and observations. Assessment is also the first step in the nursing process.

Nursing diagnostic statement—The formal, written documentation of a nursing diagnosis. It includes the label or diagnosis, the etiology, and the indicators. In the statement, the etiology is preceeded by the phrase "related to." The indicators are the assessment data that led to the diagnosis. They are preceeded by the phrase, "as evidenced by."

Nursing intervention—Any treatment that a nurse performs on a patient in response to a nursing diagnosis to reach a projected outcome.

Risk diagnosis—A nursing diagnosis that recognizes a potential problem not an existing problem. The indicators for risk diagnoses are risk factors that are identified through assessment.

Source :

READ MORE - Key Terms of Nursing Diagnosis

Family Nursing Care Plan for Tuberculosis

Family Nursing Diagnosis - Nursing Care Plan for Tuberculosis

Nursing Diagnosis that may arise in families with tuberculosis disease are:

a. Nutrition less than body requirements related to anorexia
b. Risk for Infection related to the secret is out
c. Ineffective airway clearance related to the accumulation of excessive secretions.
d. Disruption of gas exchange related to the decreased oxygen supply

In formulating nursing diagnoses in the family need to be a priority issue and a matter of priority criteria.

Priority issues

Things that need to be considered in the priority issues are as follows:
a. Not possible, the problems of health and nursing are found in the family can be addressed simultaneously.
b. Need to consider the problems that can threaten the lives of families like the problem of disease.
c. Need to consider the response and attention to family nursing care to be provided.
d. Family involvement in solving problems they face.
e. Family resources that can support problem solving health / family nursing.
f. Family and cultural knowledge.

Criteria for priority problems

Some of the criteria in priority setting problems:
1. Nature of the problem, are grouped into: health threats, is ill or unwell and crisis situations.

2. Possible problems can be changed, is the likelihood of success to reduce the problem or prevent a problem when it's done nursing and medical interventions.
Factors that may affect the problem of TB can be changed are:
a. Knowledge and action for the problem of tuberculosis.
b. Family resources, such as finance, personnel, facilities and infrastructure.
c. Care resources, including the knowledge and skills in handling the problem of tuberculosis.
d. Community resources, can be in the form of facilities, organization.

3. Potential problems of tuberculosis, to prevent, is the nature and severity of problems that will arise and TB can be reduced or prevented through nursing and health measures.
Things that need to be considered in view of the potential problem of prevention of tuberculosis are:
a. Severity / difficulty of the problem, this is related to severity of disease or tuberculosis that showed the prognosis and severity of tuberculosis suffered by family members.
b. Action has been and is being run, is an act to prevent and treat tuberculosis in order to improve the health status of the family.
c. The duration of the problem, severity of problems associated with tuberculosis in the family and the potential problems to be prevented.
d. The existence of high-risk groups within the family or a group of highly sensitive adds to the potential to prevent problems.

4. Prominence of the tuberculosis problem, is how families see and assess the tuberculosis problem in terms of severity and urgency to be addressed through nursing and medical interventions.

Nursing Care Plan for Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Nursing Care Plan includes general and specific objectives based on problems that come with the criteria and standards that refer to the cause. Furthermore formulate action-oriented nursing criteria and standards.

There are several levels of objectives in the planning of nursing according to Friedman (1998: 64). Short-term goals that are measurable, immediate and specific. And long-term goal which is the final level of the broad purposes stated expected by nurses and families to be reached.

The purpose of nursing care in a family with tuberculosis:

A. Short term goals include:
Once the information is given to the families of tuberculosis, the family is able to recognize the problem of tuberculosis, is able to take decisions and be able to care for family members suffering from tuberculosis.

Evaluation criteria:
a. Verbal response, the family is able to mention the understanding, the signs and symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention of transmission of tuberculosis.
b. Effective response, the family able to care for family members suffering from tuberculosis.
c. Psychomotor response, the family is able to modify the environment for people with tuberculosis.

Evaluation standards:
Definition, signs and symptoms, causes, prevention of tuberculosis, prevention of transmission and ways of treatment of tuberculosis.

2. Long-term goals
Problem of TB in the family can be resolved / reduced after nursing actions.

Intervention phase begins with the completion of treatment planning. Like the opinion of Friedman (1998: 67). During the implementation of nursing interventions, new data is continuously flowing into. Because this information (the response from the client, the situation changes, etc.) were collected, nurses need to be quite flexible and can adapt to review the family situation by making modifications to the plan without a plan. In choosing nursing actions depending on the nature of the problem and the resources available for solving.

Read More :
READ MORE - Family Nursing Care Plan for Tuberculosis

Nursing Diagnosis for Pain (Acute / Chronic)

There are many things that can cause a person pain and different people have different tolerances for types of pain. Someone with a low tolerance may find many things very painful. Someone with a higher tolerance may be able to withstand these things.

There is the pain of a headache and there are many kinds of headaches that produce vaious degrees and quality of pain. There is organ pain when something is wrong inside and muscle pain when they are pushed beyond the norm either by exercise or emergency. Pain can be mild and a mere annoyance, or brutal and debilitating.

Acute pain is a pain that is recent, a sudden onset of pain, something that has been caused by an accident, a fall, an injury, or something of that nature. Acute pain is usually quite strong and ranges from a sharp nerve pain or shooting pain, to a very strong ache. It can be made worse by certain movements and may restrict you from doing things.

These are some of the obvious things that cause instant pain but sometimes acute pain seems to appear out of nowhere. For example, the sudden onset of lower back pain or neck spasms.

Generally the majority of acute pain conditions are caused by muscle spasms. Sure they may feel like they are incredibly painful because when muscles spasm they can also entrap and irritate nerves. Acute pain conditions are generally easy to treat and do not leave any residual problems. Massage therapy is the treatment used to alleviate muscular problems. Remedial massage acts by stimulating the muscles that are in spasm so they release. By stimulating the right muscles the body will then correct itself, releasing the muscle spasms and bringing your body back to normal.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pain – Acute

Acute Pain is Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage (International Association for the Study of Pain); sudden or slow onset of any intensity from mild to severe with an anticipated or predictable end and a duration of less than 6 months

Pain is a highly subjective state in which a variety of unpleasant sensations and a wide range of distressing factors may be experienced by the sufferer. Pain may be a symptom of injury or illness. Pain may also arise from emotional, psychological, cultural, or spiritual distress. Pain can be very difficult to explain, because it is unique to the individual; pain should be accepted as described by the sufferer. Pain assessment can be challenging, especially in elderly patients, where cognitive impairment and sensory-perceptual deficits are more common.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pain – Chronic

Chronic Pain is Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage (International Association for the Study of Pain); sudden or slow onset of intensity from mild to severe; constant or recurring without an anticipated or predictable end and a duration of greater than 6 months.

Chronic pain may be classified as chronic malignant pain or chronic nonmalignant pain. In the former, the pain is associated with a specific cause such as cancer. With chronic nonmalignant pain the original tissue injury is not progressive or has been healed. Identifying an organic cause for this type of chronic pain is more difficult.

Nursing Diagnosisi Nursing Care Plan for Pain

READ MORE - Nursing Diagnosis for Pain (Acute / Chronic)



Nanda Books