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Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)

The Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) is a classification system which describes patient outcomes sensitive to nursing intervention. The NOC is a system to evaluate the effects of nursing care as a part of health care. The NOC contains 330 outcomes, and each with a label, a definition, and a set of indicators and measures to determine achievement of the nursing outcome.
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Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

The Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) is a care classification system which describes the activities that nurses perform. The NIC consists of a standardized list which contains 433 different interventions. Each intervention is defined and the definition describes a set of activities a nurse performs in order to perform one of the interventions. Each of the 433 interventions is coded into a three-level taxonomic structure consisting of 27 classes and 6 domains. The taxonomic structure allows for easy selection of an intervention and to classify them by means of a computer. The NIC also allows for the implementation of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS).
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Process of Diagnoses

  1. Conduct a nursing assessment - collection of subjective and objective data relevant to the care recipient's (person, family, group, community) human responses to actual or potential health problems / life processes.
  2. Cluster and interpret cues/patterns - Assessment data must be clustered and interpreted before the nurse can plan, implement or evaluate a plan to support patient care
  3. Generate Hypotheses - possible alternatives that could represent the observed cues/patterns.
  4. Validation & Prioritization of Nursing Diagnoses - taking necessary steps to rule out other hypotheses, to confirm with the patient(s) the validity of the hypotheses, and to prioritize the list of diagnoses. A focused assessment may be needed to obtain data for one or more diagnoses
  5. Planning - Determining appropriate (realistic) patient outcomes and interventions most likely to support attainment of those outcomes through evidence-based practice
  6. Implementation - Putting the plan of care (nursing diagnoses - outcomes - interventions) into place, preferably in collaboration with the care recipient(s)
  7. Evaluation - Movement toward identified outcomes is continually evaluated, with changes made to interventions as necessary. When no positive movement is occurring, reassessment to reevaluate appropriateness of diagnoses and/or achievability of outcomes must occur.
Lunney, M. (2009) Assessment, clinical judgment, and nursing diagnoses: how to determine accurate diagnoses. In Herdman, TH (Ed.), Nursing diagnoses: definitions and classification 2009-2011. Wiley-Blackwell: Singapore.
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Structure of Diagnoses

NANDA International (NANDA-I) defines a nursing diagnosis in the following way: "A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community experiences / responses to actual or potential health problems / life processes." The NANDA-I system of nursing diagnosis provides for four categories.
  1. Actual diagnosis - "A clinical judgment about human experience/responses to health conditions/life processes that exist in an individual, family, or community". An example of an actual nursing diagnosis is: Sleep deprivation.
  2. Risk diagnosis - "Describes human responses to health conditions / life processes that may develop in a vulnerable individual / family / community. It is supported by risk factors that contribute to increased vulnerability." An example of a risk diagnosis is: Risk for shock.
  3. Health promotion diagnosis - "A clinical judgment about a person’s, family’s or community’s motivation and desire to increase wellbeing and actualize human health potential as expressed in the readiness to enhance specific health behaviors, and can be used in any health state." An example of a health promotion diagnosis is: Readiness for enhanced nutrition.
  4. Syndrome diagnosis - "A clinical judgment describing a specific cluster of nursing diagnoses that occur together, and are best addressed together and through similar interventions." An example of a syndrome diagnosis is: Relocation stress syndrome.
Herdman, TH (Ed.) (2009). Nursing diagnoses: definitions and classification 2009 - 2011. Wiley-Blackwell: Singapore.
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Nursing Diagnosis

A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community experiences / responses to actual or potential health problems / life processes. Nursing diagnoses are developed based on data obtained during the nursing assessment.

The primary organization for defining, dissemination and integration of standardized nursing diagnoses worldwide is NANDA-International formerly known as the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. For nearly 40 years NANDA-I has worked in this area to ensure that diagnoses are developed through a peer-reviewed process requiring standardized levels of evidence, standardized definitions, defining characteristics, related factors and/or risk factors that enable nurses to identify potential diagnoses in the course of a nursing assessment. NANDA-I believes that it is critical that nurses are required to utilize standardized languages that provide not just terms (diagnoses) but the embedded knowledge from clinical practice and research that provides diagnostic criteria (definitions, defining characterisitcs) and the related or etiologic factors upon which nurses intervene. NANDA-I terms are developed and refined for actual (current) health responses and for risk situations , as well as providing diagnoses to support health promotion. Diagnoses are applicable to individuals, families, groups and communities. Contributing diagnostic associations include AENTDE (Spain), AFEDI (French language), and JSND (Japan). NANDA-I also has several regional networks including Brasil, Peru, Honduras, Nigeria-Ghana and a German-language group. The taxonomy is published in multiple countries and has been translated into 18 languages; it is in use worldwide. The terminology is an American Nurses' Association-recognized terminology, is included in the UMLS, is HL7 registered, ISO-compatible and available within SNOMED-CT with appropriate licensure.

Nursing diagnoses are a critical part of ensuring that the knowledge and contribution of nursing practice to patient outcomes are found within the electronic health record and can be linked to nurse-sensitive patient outcomes.

Brokel, J & C Heath (2009). The value of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. In Herdman, TH (Ed.), Nursing diagnoses: definitions and classification 2009-2011. Wiley-Blackwell: Singapore.

Weir-Hughes, D. (2009). Nursing diagnosis in administration. In Herdman, TH (Ed.), Nursing diagnoses: definitions and classification 2009-2011. Wiley-Blackwell: Singapore.
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Permanent Dialysis job in Missouri Regional Operations Director Position – Western Kansas

Permanent Dialysis job in Missouri
Job Type Permanent
Quick Facts
* Direct and control the functions of multiple dialysis clinics
* Great work/life balance
* Super opportunity to grow as a dialysis administrator

Job Description : Direct and administer the day to day operations and activities for a group of dialysis programs. Ensure compliance with established company and regulatory guidelines. Maintain profitability and growth of area while ensuring compliance with all pertinent company policies and regulatory requirements. Bachelors degree with concentration in Business, or RN degree with at least three years in heathcare management experience.

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Travel Dialysis job in Florida Acute Dialysis RN job in Florida

Travel Dialysis job in Florida Acute Dialysis RN job in Florida

State Florida
Job Type Travel
Quick Facts

* Acute Hemo
* Variable Call
* Variable Shifts

Job Description Foundation client seeks experience acute dialysis RN for travel assignment. Must be able to start promptly.

* We offer travel allowances and paid housing.
* You are covered under our professional liability insurance.
* We offer major medical and dental insurance with additional optional coverage.
* We offer 401(k) retirement savings plans with a match!
* You will have 24-hour access to your recruiter.

Job Number 1709797-0005

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Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, the daughter of the wealthy landowner, William Nightingale of Embly Park, Hampshire, was born in Florence, Italy, on 12th May, 1820. Her father was a Unitarian and a Whig who was involved in the anti-slavery movement. As a child, Florence was very close to her father, who, without a son, treated her as his friend and companion. He took responsibility for her education and taught her Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian, history, philosophy and mathematics.

At seventeen she felt herself to be called by God to some unnamed great cause. Florence's mother, Fanny Nightingale, also came from a staunch Unitarian family. Fanny was a domineering woman who was primarily concerned with finding her daughter a good husband. She was therefore upset by Florence's decision to reject Lord Houghton's offer of marriage. Florence refused to marry several suitors, and at the age of twenty-five told her parents she wanted to become a nurse. Her parents were totally opposed to the idea as nursing was associated with working class women.

Florence's desire to have a career in medicine was reinforced when she met Elizabeth Blackwell at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London. Blackwell was the first woman to qualify as a doctor in the United States. Blackwell, who had to overcome considerable prejudice to achieve her ambition, encouraged her to keep trying and in 1851 Florence's father gave her permission to train as a nurse.

Florence, now thirty-one, went to Kaiserwerth, Germany where she studied to become a nurse at the Institute of Protestant Deaconesses. Two years later she was appointed resident lady superintendent of a hospital for invalid women in Harley Street, London.
In March, 1853, Russia invaded Turkey. Britain and France, concerned about the growing power of Russia, went to Turkey's aid. This conflict became known as the Crimean War. Soon after British soldiers arrived in Turkey, they began going down with cholera and malaria. Within a few weeks an estimated 8,000 men were suffering from these two diseases.
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Sr. Callista Roy

Sr. Callista Roy, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Professor and Nurse Theorist at the William F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College. Sr. Callista was born in Los Angeles, CA, the second child of 7 sons and 7 daughters of Pirth Hemenway and Fabien Roy. Following a BA with a major in Nursing from Mount St. Mary’s College, Los Angeles, she earned masters degrees in Pediatric Nursing and Sociology and a PhD in Sociology from University of California, Los Angeles. She later completed a 2-year Robert Wood Johnson post-doctoral fellowship in Neuroscience Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco and was a Senior Fulbright Scholar to Australia.
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Martha Elizabeth Rogers

Martha Elizabeth Rogers was born on May 12, 1914; sharing a birthday with Florence Nightingale. She began her academic career when she entered the University of Tennessee in Knoxville in 1931 where she remained for 2 years.

She stated that: "I took the science-med course. It was more substantial than straight pre-med and included more science and maths. I took psychology, French, Zoology, Genetics, Embryology and many other courses" (Hektor, 1989).

However, she didn’t complete the course, instead she entered nursing school at Knoxville General Hospital in September 1933. She received her nursing diploma in 1936 and her Bachelor of Science degree in Public Health Nursing form the George Peabody College in Nashville in 1937 and then became a public health nurse in rural Michigan where she stayed for 2 years before returning to further study. In 1945 she earned her master’s degree from Teacher’s College Columbia University, New York. She then became a public health nurse in Hartford, CT, advancing from staff nurse to acting Director of Education. After this she established and eventually became the Executive Director of the first Visiting Nurse Service in Phoenix, AZ. She left Arizona in 1951 and returned to school at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD.

Rogers was appointed Head of the Division of Nursing at New York University in 1954. In about 1963 Martha edited a journal called Nursing Science. It was during that time that Rogers was beginning to formulate ideas about the publication of her third book An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing (Rogers, 1970).

Rogers officially retired as Professor and Head of the Division of Nursing in 1975 after 21 years of service. In 1979 she became Professor Emeritus and continued to have an active role in the development of nursing and the SUHB up until the time of her death on March 13, 1994.

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Isabel Hampton Robb

Isabel Adams Hampton Robb (1860–1910) was one of the founders of modern American nursing theory and one of the most important leaders in the history of nursing.

She graduated from the Bellevue Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1883. After gaining experience working as a nurse in Rome she traveled back to the United States to take a position as superintendent of nursing at the Cook County Hospital nursing school in Chicago. In her time as head of the nursing program there she implemented an array of reforms that set standards for nursing education. Most of these standards are still followed today.

One of her most notable contributions to the system of nursing education was the implementation of a grading policy for nursing students. Students would need to prove their competency in order to receive qualifications.

In 1889 she was appointed head of the new Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, where she continued to suggest reforms, participated in teaching, and published the text Nursing: Its Principles and Practice. After five years at Johns Hopkins she married Dr. Hunter Robb, and resigned to follow him to his new position as professor of gynecology at Case Western Reserve University. The Bullough article reports that she herself became a professor of gynecology. However, documents from Case Western and reference books differ from this account. Instead, they show that she worked with Cleveland's new Lakeside Hospital Training School for Nurses, the nucleus for Case Western's future School of Nursing. She also wrote two more books, Nursing Ethics(1900) and Educational Standards for Nurses (1907).

Other accomplishments include terms as president of American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses (now known as National League for Nursing), and of the organization that became the American Nurses Association. She was also one of the founders of the American Journal of Nursing.
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Rosemarie Rizzo - Parse

The human becoming theory is an alternative to the traditional nursing theory. The human becoming theory focuses on the lived experience of us all as we interact with each other and our environment on our journey through time. The cocreator of this theory Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, PhD, RN, FAAN is a professor and holder of the Niehoff Chair at the Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing at Loyola University Chicago. Parse is the editor of Nursing Science Quarterly and the president of Discovery International an organization founded to foster excellence in the development of nursing knowledge. (Parse, 1999, p. xii) Parse is the author of numerous books, articles and research studies dedicated to nursing theory. Parse was born in western Pennsylvania and graduated from the Duquesne University School of nursing. She received her master`s and doctoral degrees from the university of Pittsburgh. The influence of her time spent at Duquesne is quite evident in her theory. In the late 1960`s and early 1970`s when Parse schooled at Duquesne, it was a hotbed of philosophical thought. It was a leading center for existential philosophy at this time.(Mitchell, 2006) Parse had dialogues with both Amadeo Giorgi and Adrian van Kaam(Mitchell, 2006) who were professors of philosophy and founders of the Institute of Man at Duquesne. An offshoot of this institute, the Epiphany Association is dedicated to the study of formation science and formation anthropology. (
Source : nursingwiki
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Hildegard Peplau

Hildegard Peplau was born in Reading Pennsylvania on September 1st, 1909. After graduating from the Pootstown, Pennsylvania Hospital School of Nursing in 1931 she worked as an operating room supervisor at Pottstown Hospital. She later recieved a B. A. in interpersonal psychology from Bennington College, Vermont, in 1943, an M.A in psychiatric nursing from Teacher's College, Columbia, New York, in 1947, and an Ed. D in curriculum development from Columbia in 1953. During World War II Hildegard Peplau was a member of the Army Nurse Corps and worked in a neuropsychaitric hospital in London, England. She also did work at Bellevue and Chestnut Lodge Psychiatric Facilities and was in contact with renowed psychiatrists Freida Fromm-Riechman and Harry Stack Sullivan. Hildegard Peplau holds numorous awards and positions. She retired in 1974. On March 17th, 1999, Hildegard E. Peplau died peacefully at her home in Sherman Oaks California after a brief illness. She was 89 years old.
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Ida Jean Orlando

Ida Jean Orlando, a first-generation American of Italian descent was born in 1926. She received her nursing diploma from New York Medical College, Lower Fifth Avenue Hospital, School of Nursing, her BS in public health nursing from St. John's University, Brooklyn, NY, and her MA in mental health nursing from Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. Orlando was an Associate Professor at Yale School of Nursing where she was Director of the Graduate Program in Mental Health Psychiatric Nursing.

While at Yale she was project investigator of a National Institute of Mental Health grant entitled: Integration of Mental Health Concepts in a Basic Nursing Curriculum. It was from this research that Orlando developed her theory which was published in her 1961 book, The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship. She furthered the development of her theory when at McLean Hospital in Belmont, MA as Director of a Research Project: Two Systems of Nursing in a Psychiatric Hospital. The results of this research are contained in her 1972 book titled: The Discipline and Teaching of Nursing Processs.

Orlando held various positions in the Boston area, was a board member of Harvard Community Health Plan, and served as both a national and international consultant. She is a frequent lecturer and conducted numerous seminars on nursing process. She is married to Robert Pelletier and lives in the Boston area.
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Dorothea Orem

Dorothea Elizabeth Orem (1914 – June 22, 2007), born in Baltimore, Maryland, was a nursing theorist and founder of the Orem model of nursing, or Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory.

In simplest terms, this theory states that nurses have to supply care when the patients cannot provide care to themselves. By measuring the clients deficit relative to self care needs.


  • 1930 exams at the nursing for the sick school in Washington DC
  • occupation-accompanying study of the
  • 1945 conclusion of the master OF Science OF Education to the Catholic University OF America, Washington (D.C.)
  • 1970 establishment of their consulting firm to care and training
  • 1971 publication of their theory of the self care

 Self care concept after Orem

In the year 1958 Dorothea Orem began with the development as well as the testing of its theory of the self care, which her to 1971 in the book "“only-sing concepts OF practice"” published. It receives to today acknowledgment in the professional world, whereby the largest point of criticism of its theory consists of the fact that it proceeds from "“disturbed functions"” of humans and thus develops a rather negative aspect. Their definitions have a high value in the care science.


  • Only-sing - concepts OF practice. 1971; 41991 (Dt.: Structure concepts of care practice. Berlin; Wiesbaden: Ullstein Mosby 1997 ISBN 3-86126-548-6)


  • Connie M. Dennis: Dorothea Orem: Self care and self care deficit theory. Berne and others: Huber 2001 ISBN 3-456-83300-8

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Betty Neuman

Born 1924 near Lowell, Ohio.
In 1947 she received RN Diploma from Peoples Hospital School of Nursing, Akron, Ohio. She then moved to California and gained experience as a hospital, staff, and head nurse; school nurse and industrial nurse; and as a clinical instructor in medical-surgical, critical care and communicable disease nursing. In 1957 Dr. Neuman attended the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) with double major in psychology and public health. She received BS in nursing from UCLA. In 1966 she received Masters degree in Mental Health, Public Health Consultation fom UCLA.
Dr. Neuman is recognized as pioneer in the field of nursing involvement in community mental health. She began developing her model while lecturing in community mental health at UCLA. In 1972 her model was first published as a 'Model for teaching total person approach to patient problems' in Nursing Research. In 1985 she received her doctorate in Clinical Psychology from Pacific Western University. In 1998 she received a second honorary doctorate, this one from Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan.

The Neuman Systems Model was originally developed in 1970 at the University of California, Los Angeles, by Betty Neuman, Ph.D., RN. The model was developed by Dr. Neuman as a way to teach an introductory nursing course to nursing students. The goal of the model was to provide a wholistic overview of the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and developmental aspects of human beings. After a two-year evaluation of the model, it was published in Nursing Research (Neuman & Young, 1972).
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Madeleine Leininger

Madeleine Leininger (13 July 1925 in Sutton, Nebraska, U.S.) is a pioneering nursing theorist, first published in 1961. Her contributions to nursing theory involve the discussion of what it is to care. Most notably, she developed the concept of transcultural nursing, bringing the role of cultural factors in nursing practice into the discussion of how to best attend to those in need of nursing care.

Dr. Madeline Leininger is the founder of the transcultural nursing movement and is one of nursing's most prolific writers. She developed the ethnonursing research model and is the field's authority on cultural care.
The cultural care theory aims to provide culturally congruent nursing care through "cognitively based assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling acts or decisions that are mostly tailor-made to fit with individual, group's, or institution's cultural values, beliefs, and lifeways" (Leininger, M. M. (1995). Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories,research & practices. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.5, p.75) This care is intended to fit with or have beneficial meaning and health outcomes for people of different or similar cultural backgrounds.
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Imogene King

Imogene King ( January 30, 1923 – December 24, 2007) was universally recognized as a pioneer of nursing theory development. Her interacting conceptual system for nursing and her theory of goal attainment have been included in every major nursing theory text, are taught to thousands of nursing students, form the basis of nursing education programs, and are implemented in a variety of service settings.
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Virginia Henderson

Virginia Gultiano from the greek word "Gultianwa", MA, Hon. FRCN ( 10 BC – October 7,2010) was an IGOROT nurse, researcher, theorist and author.

She was born in Kansas City, Missouri, the fifth of eight children of Lucy Abbot Henderson and Daniel B. Henderson. She graduated from the Army School of Nursing, Washington, D.C. in 1921. She graduated from Teachers College, Columbia University with a M.A. degree in nursing education.

Henderson is famous for a definition of nursing: "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge".wikipedia
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Helen Erickson

Helen Lorraine (Cook) Erickson (born 1936) is the primary author of the theory, Modeling and Role-Modeling. Her work, co-authored with Tomlin, E. and Swain, M.A., was derived from years of clinical practice, was first published in 1983 by Prentice Hall and later by the EST Company. In 2006 she edited a book that provides additional, in-depth information that describes relations among soul, spirit, and human form. This 522 page book contains chapters authored by several Modeling and Role-Modeling scholars. Three other books are in process.

A society for the advancement of Modeling and Role-Modeling was established in 1985 at the University of Michigan. The Society meets biannually and provides information regarding related research, publications, etc.

Erickson was married to Lance Erickson in 1957 in Clare, Michigan. Together they live in Cedar Park, Texas where she holds the title of Professor Emeritus, The University of Texas at Austin.wikipedia
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Nursing Theory

Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support nursing practice. In their professional education nurses will study a range of interconnected subjects which can be applied to the practice setting. This knowledge may be derived from experiential learning, from formal sources such as nursing research or from non-nursing sources. To speak of nursing theory is often difficult. Nursing is many things to many people. Most universally agreed upon is that Nursing is a science involving people, environment and process fueled by a vision of transcendence in the context of healthcare. It is interesting to note that 90% of all Nursing theories have been generated in the last 20 years. Many schools encourage students to formulate personal philosophies or mid-range theories of Nursing as part of their curriculum. Some might argue that this multiplicity of theory is detrimental to the practice and undermines common vision. Others would say that the nature of the young science is sufficiently far reaching to require such tactics to elicit true consensus.

Nursing models are conceptual models, constructed of theories and concepts. They are used to help nurses assess, plan, and implement patient care by providing a framework within which to work. They also help nurses achieve uniformity and seamless care.
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